Parnassius tianschanicus
Parnassius tianschanicus tianschanicus Oberthur, 1879

TYPE LOCALITY. "Kuldja" [Kuldzha, E. Tian-Shan, W. China].
RANGE. Tian-Shan, Ghissar, the Pamirs-Alar, WE. Afghanistan, N. Pakistan, W. China.
DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION. A lot of subspecies have been described, the status of some of them being uncertain. In our opinion, the following subspecies are meaningful: ssp. tianshanicus Oberthur, 1879 - mountains N. of Lake Issyk- Kul; ssp. minor Staudinger, 1881 - Dzhungarsky Alatau; ssp. alexarlder Bryk et Eisner, 1935 - Kirghizsky Mts., Tolassky Mts. (east); ssp. chimganus Kreuzberg, 1989 - W. Tian-Shan; ssp. astrictio Ohya, 1987 (= kainduensis Kreuzberg, 1989) - central Tian-Shan; ssp. thiseus Ehrmann, 1920 - Inner Tian-Shan; ssp. insignis Staudinger, 1886 - Alaisky Mts.; ssp. haberhaueri Bryk et Eisner, 1935 - Ghissar; ssp. superbus Austaut, 1889 - the W. Pamirs. In some places, hybrids with P. apollo may be found.
HABITATS AND BIOLOGY . Common in the midmontane and alpine zones at 2,500-3,500 m a.s.l., inhabiting stony slopes and meadows. Plight period: June- July. Host plants (Kreuzberg, 1984): Rhodiola, Pseudosedum. Hibernation as eggs or newly-hatched larvae inside the chorion.
. SIMILAR SPECIES. P. actius. smaller, UPF marginal band narrow, not reaching the dorsum in males, red spots small. P. jacquemonti. smaller, UPH with red basal spots.

Photo and text: Guide to the BUTTERFLIES OF RUSSIA and adjacent territories Volume 1. PENSOFT, Sofia - Moscow. 1997

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