Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758)
Maniola  jurtina   (Linnaeus, 1758)

TYPE LOCALITY. N. Africa, SW. Europe.

RANGE. From N. Africa across Europe (except the extreme north) to the Ural Mts. and W. Siberia, and across Asia Minor and the Caucasus to Turkmenia and Iran.

DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION. The central European part, the Middle and S. Urals, W. Siberia (the Kurgan Region) - ssp. janira Linnaeus, 1758. Other subspecies are as follows: ssp. strandiana Oberthur, 1936 - the S. European part, the Caucasus Major and Minor, the Armenian Highland; ssp. persica (LeCerf, 1912) (=? ghilanica LeCerf, 1913) - Kopet-Dagh.

HABITAT AND BIOLOGY. Forest, forest-steppe and meadow steppe habitats up to 2,000 m a.s.l., also cultivated lands (forest plantations, parks, orchards, etc.). Flight period: May-August depending on the geographical location and climatic conditions. The main host plants (Eckstein, 1913; Ebert, 1991; etc.): grasses Poa, Bromus, Festuca, Milium, Brachypodium, Lolium, Avena, Alopecurus, Anthoxanthum. Larvae hibernating.

SIMILAR SPECIES. Hyponephele lycaon: smaller; male androconial area not diffused, obliquely directed and divided into three parts by veins Cu1 and Cu2; female with two ochreous ringed eye-spots.

Photo and text: Guide to the BUTTERFLIES OF RUSSIA and adjacent territories Volume 1. PENSOFT, Sofia - Moscow. 1997

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